Figure 8. Color Wheel Materials reflect and/or absorb various wavelengths of light differentially, an effect that is valid for both black and white and color imaging space. Like colors reflect and surfaces are brightened; conversely, opposing colors absorb and surfaces are darkened. Using a simple color wheel of warm versus cool colors (Figure 8), you can generate differential contrast between a part and its background (Figure 9), and even differentiate color parts, given a limited, known palette of colors, with a black and white camera (Figure 10).
Figure 9. A mail stamp imaged under (a) red light, (b) green light, (c) blue light, generating less contrast than green, (d) white light, generating less contrast than either blue or green. White light contrasts all colors, but it may be a contrast compromise.
Figure 10. Candy pieces are imaged under (a) white light and a color CCD camera, (b) white light and a black and white camera, (c) red light, lightening both the red and yellow and darkening the blue, (d) red and green light, yielding yellow, lightening the yellow more than the red, (e) green light, lightening the green and blue and darkening the red, (f) blue light, lightening the blue and darkening the others.
Sample Composition and Transmittance
Sample composition can greatly affect what happens to task lighting impinging on a part. Some plastics may transmit light only of certain wavelength ranges and are otherwise opaque; some may not transmit, but rather internally diffuse the light; and still some may absorb the light only to re-emit it at the same wavelength or at a different wavelength (fluorescence). Fluorescence labels and dyes are commonly used in inks for the printing industry as well (Figure 11).
Figure 11. The motor oil bottle on the left is illuminated with a red 660 nm ring light. On the right, the bottle is illuminated with a 360 nm UV fluorescent light. The properties of IR light can be useful in vision inspection for a variety of reasons. First, IR light is effective at neutralizing contrast differences based on color, primarily because reflection of IR light is based more on sample composition rather than color differences. You can use this property when less contrast, normally based on color reflectance from white light, is the effect you want (see Figure 12).
Figure 12. On the left, the glossy paper sample is under diffuse white light. The right is under diffuse IR light. IR light is considerably more effective at penetrating polymer materials than the short wavelengths, such as UV or blue, and even red in some cases (see Figure 13). Conversely, it is this lack of penetration depth that makes blue light more useful for imaging shallow surface features of black rubber compounds or laser etchings, for instance.
Figure 13. In the populated PCB the penetration of red is 660 nm (left image) and IR 880 nm light. Notice the better penetration of IR despite the red blooming out from the hole in the top center of the board.